Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address 4 March 1865

Fellow-Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the...

Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address 19 November 1863

The following text is one of five, all in Lincoln’s handwriting.  The differences among them are small and not material to the meaning.  This text has become the standard; it appears on the wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington,...

Lincoln’s First Inaugural 4 March 1861

Fellow-Citizens of the United States: In compliance with a custom as old as the Government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly and to take in your presence the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States to be taken by the President before...

Developed Virginia Plan

The following text presents the development of the Virginia.  It is not far from the original.  It does reflect the most serious obstacle during the early phases of the Convention, namely, the concerns the small states had for representation based...